Electric motors are present in almost every device around us in our daily lives. Practically every industry depends on electric motors either because they use such machinery for manufacturing products or they use these motors to install them in their products.
When choosing electric motors, there are many different types, each with pros, cons, and features. In this guide, we’ll discuss coreless DC motors, and you will get an idea of almost everything about them.
This guide also features the difference between coreless motors and other traditional motors, which also helps you make a better decision. So, let’s read below.We also introduced How to Choose a Coreless Brushless Motor in detail in our previous article, we hope it will be helpful to you.
What is a Coreless Motor and Its Working Principle?
Coreless motors are electric motors that do not contain the iron core as other motors in their rotor. These motors, however, have a coil wound around a cylindrical frame, which is very light in weight.
These motors operate based on electromagnetic induction, and with the help of the interaction of magnetic fields, they generate movement. The rotor is one of the unique aspects of these motors, which helps in making these motors more efficient.
Coreless motors apply electric current to the wire coiled around the cylinder and help to create a magnetic field. This magnetic field interacts with the magnetic components present within the motor and tends to generate force, which leads to rotation. These motors do not contain brushes and commutators like the traditional motors.
Difference between Coreless Motors and Traditional Brushed and Brushless Motors
Brushed motors, as the name suggests, have brushes and commutators, which help to control the direction of current flowing through the motor. These brushes come into contact with the commutator and carry out the rotation. These motors are subjected to a lot of wear and tear and, hence, have high maintenance requirements.
On the other hand, brushless motors have a permanent magnet, known as a rotor, and a stator, which is a stationary component with coils. These eliminate the need for brushes. However, it is highly efficient and spans longer than the brushed motor.
However, coreless motors are more advantageous when compared to the above two kinds of traditional motors for many reasons. These motors can offer a high power output level, and being light in weight, they suit almost all applications.
These motors even offer low friction as they have no brushes. Hence, their maintenance is also minimal, with smooth performance producing no noise, which traditional motors do.However, on the other hand, coreless motors are expensive compared to brushed and brushless motors, and manufacturing them is complex.
Construction of Coreless Motor
The coreless motor has been designed differently than the traditional motors and the main aspect of its design is the armature.
The structure of the armature comprises coils wound on a cylindrical object, and there is no iron core present, which sets it apart from the traditional motors. This feature of the motor is what makes it ideal for use in applications that have weight limitations.
The coil in the armature is wound in a way that helps improve the motor’s efficiency and generates better power output. It also helps the motor to offer a high level of power-to-weight ratio.
The material used for constructing the coreless motor is also an essential aspect that plays an important role. Copper material is one of the chosen choices for coil, which offers excellent conductivity for electricity, and hence, the coil made with copper generates a better magnetic field.
The coreless motor also has permanent magnets made with rare earth materials and offers a stable magnetic field, allowing better movement. The coreless motor also contains a frame made with lightweight alloys, providing a suitable structure for the motor.
Features of Coreless Motors
Coreless motors have many advantageous features, some of which are discussed below.
Precision and Tolerance of Coreless Motors
Coreless motor is known for its exceptional tolerance; hence, with varied circumstances, it can consistently maintain its performance. Irrespective of what environmental conditions they operate in, be it the extreme temperature or vibration, the consistency of their performance remains exceptional.
The coreless motors are also known for offering precision when it comes to controlling the motor’s speed and direction; hence, in robotics and medicine, they prove to be highly suitable.
Coreless motors offer a high power-to-weight ratio because of the design of the armature, which is unique, and due to the lack of core, it reduces the weight of the motor itself. Hence, the coreless motor is a suitable option in applications where weight is a critical constraint.
Smooth Operating Performance
The performance of the coreless motor is very smooth; it doesn’t produce noise and vibration, and hence, very precisely, it can be adjusted in terms of changes in speed and direction. Applications like cameras and laboratory equipment need this kind of fine movement with smooth operation, and it caters to such applications well.
Low Level of Cogging
The iron core being absent in the coreless motor ensures an even movement of the motor, which leads to a low level of cogging. This is absent in traditional motors and is ideal for applications that need precise and smooth movements.
Reduced Electromagnetic Interference
The electromagnetic interference produced by coreless motors is low because they do not have brushes, which is vital in sensitive applications like communication and medical devices.
Improved Life Span
Coreless motors have components that do not wear out as quickly as other motors’ components. Hence, they can withstand challenging conditions and, therefore, have a longer life span.
The coreless motors are highly energy efficient. They can convert the electrical input into mechanical one with a minimal loss of heat. Also, they have less friction and internal resistance followed by no brushes, which also makes them suitable for being energy efficient and environment friendly.
Less Heat Generation
The coreless motors are very efficient and have lesser resistance and friction, leading to minimal heat loss. Hence, the heat generation is also low, and it is ideal for heat-sensitive applications.
High Acceleration with Quick Response
The coreless motor can change its rotation speed quickly, and it is highly needed in many applications like robotics because it requires swift movements.
Lesser Electromagnetic Noise
The coreless motors tend to have no noise like others because of their design; hence, they are highly suitable for medical equipment.
Minimal Maintenance Requirements
The coreless motors have a lesser level of wear and tear and, therefore, need less maintenance because they don’t have brushes for commutators, which are prone to wear out. Therefore, in the long run, these motors prove to be highly cost-effective.
Wider Range of Operating Temperature
The coreless motors are designed in a way that they are capable of operating in extreme temperatures. They have been constructed using materials that ensure their resistance in extreme circumstances and are suitable for automotive and aerospace systems.
How to Maintain Coreless Motors?
The coreless motors need a minimal level of maintenance, but there are specific tips that you can make the most of and improve the performance and efficiency of the motors, which are discussed below:
● Every mechanical device needs proper cleaning and lubrication from time to time to keep working efficiently and reduce wear and tear. Similarly, when it comes to coreless motors, you must keep them clean regularly and lubricate them occasionally to ensure that moving parts remain efficient and work smoothly.
● Every motor generates some amount of heat during the operation. However, too much heat may lead to damage to the motor and also reduce the efficiency. Hence, temperature management is essential, which may comprise using fans or heat skinks.
Therefore, you can also implement these techniques and reduce heat production when the coreless motor is working in conditions comprising a higher load.
Applications of Coreless Motors
There are many applications of coreless motors, and some of these include the following:
● These coreless motors are used widely in many laboratory applications that need precise movement control, like analytical devices or microscopes for precise positioning.
● In cameras and other equipment used for photography, coreless motors prove to be highly suitable because they offer smooth and quick zooming, and photographers have control over their shots.
● Coreless motors even help optimize renewable energy systems, and they help control the solar panels in terms of their orientations and even are used in wind turbines.
● The fabrication of semiconductors is also an exact and sensitive process that needs accurate positioning, and hence, the movement of these components could be controlled through the coreless motors.
This guide above must have equipped you with all the essential details associated with coreless motors and how they are suitable compared to traditional motors. These are motors used in modern times, which have multiple benefits to offer.
So, opting for them for different applications could be a great idea, and this guide above will also help you make a relevant decision whether you should choose them or not, depending on your application.Click to follow DONGHUI Motor and let you know more.