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12v Dc Electric Motors: Everything You Need to Know

Electric Motor is a device that converts electrical energy into Mechanical Energy. Electrical energy may be as a domain of AC and DC. Either of the type is a very useful device, having their application across various tools and operations.

There is a wide range of Electric Motor. However, in this review, dhmotor focus more on everything you should know about 12v DC motors.

What is 12 volt DC motor?

12V DC motor is a special type of DC motor that runs on a 12 volt DC supply. It is a general-purpose DC motor. Most of the household electronics machine consists of a 12-volt dc motor.

The current rating of this motor depends on the load of the motor. The speed of DC motors is specified in Revolution Per Meter (RPM).

1. How does a 12v dc motor work?

The working of all types of DC motors is the same, based on electromagnetic induction. According to which whenever a current carrying conductor is kept in the influence of a magnetic field then this conductor experience a force. On this same principle, the 12v Dc motor also works.

In principle, 12V DC motors is based on the interaction between the magnetic field created by the permanent magnets and the current flowing through the armature.

2. Operation principle of 12V DC motor

Current is supplied to the armature, creating a magnetic field.The magnetic field interacts with the permanent magnets, causing the armature to rotate. As the armature rotates, the commutator reverses the current direction.

The reversal continues, causing continuous rotation of the armature.This simple mechanism enables the motor to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy, making 12V DC motors suitable for various applications; domestics and industrial.

3. Application of 12v DC motor

  • It is used in DC fans.
  • Sometimes it is used to run as a water pump.
  • It is used in a cooler.
  • it is mostly used in electronic devices.
  • it is used in motorbikes to start.

12v dc electric motor diagram

12v dc motor

12V DC motor specifications

  • Speed: 350-5000 rpm Rated
    Torque: 1.1-12.0 in-lbs
  • Output Power: .01-.21 hp
  • Frame Sizes: 60, 80, 108 mm
  • Brush card or replaceable brushes
  • Standard brush life of 2000+ hours

Construction of 12v DC motor

Any type of electric rotating machine has two main parts i.e stator and Rotor. The stator is a static part of the machine while the rotor is a rotating part of the machine.

Generally, high-grade steel materials are used to make the stator. Mostly, stator is designed in such a way that it will provide mechanical support for the motor also.

Sice Rotor is a rotating part of the motor and also it consist rotor coil conductor which linked with the magnetic flux provided by the magnetic field system. Hence high-grade alloy of silicon and steel is used to make the rotor core.

Magnetic field system for DC motor

The magnetic field system is one of the important parts of the DC motor. This part provides a magnetic field that interacts with the rotor coil. In a large DC motor magnetic field flux is provided by producing a magnetic flux by an electromagnet.

This magnetic field system is kept in the stator core and fed by an external source of DC current. For small size, DC motor like 6v, 12 v, 24 v DC motor magnetic field is provided by a permanent magnet.  The segment of the permanent magnet of proper size is assembled in the stator of the DC motor.

12v dc motor high torque

1. What is a high torque DC motor?

high torque DC motor is a type of direct current (DC) motor designed to deliver a higher level of rotational force (torque) compared to regular DC motors. They find applications in various industries where heavy loads need to be moved or where precise and powerful movements are required.

High torque DC motors operate on the principle of electromagnetism, just like regular DC motors. The fundamental concept involves the interaction between magnetic fields and electric currents to produce rotational motion.

High Torque DC Motor

2. Working principle 12v dc motor high torque

The working principle of a high torque DC motor can be summarized in the following steps:

  • Current Flow: When an electric current flows through the stator windings, it creates a magnetic field around the coils.
  • Magnetic Interaction: As the rotor’s armature windings come into contact with the magnetic field generated by the stator, a force is exerted on the armature, causing it to rotate.
  • Commutation: As the rotor turns, the commutator ensures that the electrical connections to the armature windings change, thereby reversing the direction of the current in the coils.
  • Continuous Rotation: This constant reversal of the current direction in the armature coils ensures that the rotor rotates continuously in a single direction, generating mechanical motion.

3. 12v dc motor high torque low rpm

High torque low RPM motors are specifically designed to move parts and equipment at a slower rate in a more controlled manner. As the speed increases, the torque decreases. The unit of maximum torque speed is RPM, which defines the maximum torque of the engine.

12V DC motors with high torque and low RPM types are increasing in popularity. 12V DC motors with high torque are precision gear motors with low power, and are also known as micro reducers.

The 12V DC motor with high torque is often equipped with a gearbox connected by the drive shaft to increase the torque of the motor and achieve low RPM.

While the DC gear motor 12V 1000 RPM is commonly used, there is actually no standard speed limit for this type of motor. For example, the speed of the 12V DC motor with high torque can reach even 5 RPM.

4. 12v dc motor high torque high rpm

This type of DC features high-torque and high revolution per minutes (RPM) alongside characteristic high strength, abrasion resistance and low-noise power source for power tools and equipment.

They are essentially used in electronic gaming machines, electronic toys, car toys, robots, electronic equipment etc. Their specification ranges from 6000RPM for 12V or 12000RPM for 24V.


1. Why is DC motor speed control important?

Controlling the speed of a DC motor is important for a variety of reasons. In industrial applications, such as manufacturing and production processes, it allows for precise control over the machinery and its output.

This type of precision can be extremely helpful when working with delicate materials or components that require specific speeds to operate properly.Controlling the speed of DC motors also helps improve efficiency by reducing energy costs through lowering idle running times.

Furthermore, when incorporated into robotics or other automated systems, having the ability to control a motor’s speed can allow for more accurate movements and smoother operation overall.

Finally, regulating the speed of DC motors can provide greater stability in a system overall as well as increase its lifespan by removing unnecessary strain on its components

2. How to slow or control DC motor

Flux control method

This technique of DC motor speed control uses the armature circuit resistance to vary the flux produced by the field winding. This is done by controlling the amount of current that flows through the field winding.

The armature voltage remains constant in this method and only a fraction of it passes through the armature winding due to a varying amount of resistance in series with it.

As a result, more or less current will flow through the armature and thus more or less flux will be produced corresponding to which motor speed can be regulated accurately.

Voltage control method

In this method, DC motor speed control is achieved by varying applied voltage across its terminals. When supply voltage is increased above its normal value, then torque developed by the motor also increases along with the speed.

As a result, its speed will increase until it reaches its no-load speed and further increasing the supply voltage will not affect its speed.

Armature control method

Armature control method is used when a large amount of torque is required along with precise control over the motor’s speed. This method involves varying current flowing in the armature winding by using variable resistance in series or parallel with it.

When more current flows through the armature winding, then more torque can be developed at higher speeds. Similarly, decreasing armature current results in lower torque and speed of rotation as well.

Field control method

This technique of DC motor speed control is also known as the field weakening

Field Control Method

method in which field flux is weakened by decreasing the field current. This results in a lower torque at higher speeds which is ideal for high speed applications like electric drills, etc.

Also, this method has the advantage of increased control range as compared to other methods since it can operate from zero speed all the way up to rated speed.

DC motor speed control in series types

Using a series type DC motor offers the greatest control and power efficiency compared to other types of motors. In a series type DC motor, the armature is connected in series with the field winding.

This arrangement gives greater torque and better speed regulation at all speeds. The speed of the motor can be varied by changing either the supply voltage or by varying the resistance in one or both of the windings.

When operating in a series circuit, any change in current will cause an equally proportional change in torque and speed. By increasing or decreasing resistance introduced into one or both windings, either gradually or abruptly, this will result in decreased speed for increased resistance and increased speed for decreased resistance.

For example, if you want to slow down a motor, you can introduce a resistor into one of the windings. This will decrease the current flowing and reduce the magnetic field strength, causing the rotor to slow down.

2. How to power a 12v dc motor?

power a 12v dc motor

Running a 12V DC motor on 120V AC is not directly possible because the voltage levels are not compatible. A 12V DC motor is designed to operate on 12V direct current, while 120V AC is a high voltage alternating current.

However, it is possible to power a 12V DC motor on 120V AC by using a power converter, also known as an “inverter”. An inverter is an electronic device that converts AC power to DC power.

By using an inverter, you can convert the 120V AC power from your wall outlet into 12V DC power, which can then be used to run your 12V DC motor.

3. How to power a 12v dc motor with a battery?

The first diagram show the simplest way to power a 12V DC with a battery by merely connecting wires to battery terminals. This method requires you to connect or disconnect to put ‘on’ the device.

The second diagram gives an improved method to power your 12V DC as you only need to engage the switch into ‘on or off’ mode.

How to power a 12v dc motor with a battery

4. What is the life expectancy of a 12V DC motor?

The general service life of DC motors is about 20,000 to 100,000 hours. Some high-quality motor manufacturers will have corresponding technologies to make the DC motor last longer, such as oil-free lubrication, sealed bearings, overheating protection, and significantly improved commutator life.

5. How much power can a 12V DC motor generate?

In order to determine the amount of power that a 12V DC motor is capable of generating, much depends on “how much current” the coil of the rotor can carry.

If the gauge of coil is more, then it can carry more current and generate more current. Let’s take a look at few examples below:

  • If a12v DC motor is connected to a 1.5A capacity, it can generate 18W of power.
  • Similarly if a 12v DC motor is connected to a 3A capacity, it can generate 36W of power.
  • You can use this simple and straightforward formula to determine the power generated P=V*I


As noted above,dc motor is an invaluable piece of equipment that harnesses electrical energy, transforming it into mechanical power.

It works by using a current-carrying coil to create a magnetic field in the stator, which interacts with the permanent magnets of the rotor to cause rotation.

Among its great features that make it suitable for sensitive applications such as robotics, automation is the speed of the motor which is determined by the applied voltage and can be precisely adjusted by controlling its current to suit every needs and applications.

Post time:Sep-25-2020

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